Risk Factors for Decreased Pelvic Floor Muscle Strength: Which is More Effective?

Omer Demir
Cihan Comba
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Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether cigarette smoking weakens the pelvic floor and to determine its effective impact relative to other factors.

Study Design: Between September 2017 and September 2018, 250 patients admitted to an outpatient gynecology clinic were examined by a single physician and their anamnesis was taken. As a result of the examination, the pelvic floor muscle strength was evaluated according to the Modified Oxford Scale and the patients evaluated as 1/5 and 2/5 were grouped as having weak muscle strength and the rest were grouped as having high muscle strength. The intention was then to compare these two groups. The SPSS 21.0 for Windows program was used to perform statistical evaluations. Comparative analysis was performed with regression analysis.

Results: 250 women participated in the study. 4 patients had muscle strength of 1/5; while 40 patients had muscle strength of 2/5 (17.6%). Patients with muscle strength of 1/5 and 2/5 were grouped as weak muscle strength. Advanced age, increased parity, smoking, and obesity are risk factors for a decrease in pelvic floor muscle strength (p < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which of these factors has the greatest impact on pelvic floor muscle strength. Smoking has a 7-fold effect on decreased muscle strength (OR: 7.925) and obesity has a 5-fold impact (OR: 5.374).

Conclusion: Although the mechanism of the effect of cigarette smoking on the pelvic floor is not known, it should be remembered that this effect has an adverse impact together with other factors which also have proven detrimental effects.


Cigarette smoking, Muscle strength, Pelvic floor

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21613/GORM.2019.947

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